IRPP Study No. 31, May 2012 by Tracey M. Derwing and Erin Waugh
"Skills in an official language (English or French) significantly affect the economic integration of Canada’s immigrants, including their employment levels and incomes. Official-language skills also have an impact on how well immigrants integrate socially in their workplaces and communities. In this study, Tracey Derwing and Erin Waugh examine the relationship between ficial language knowledge and the social integration of adult immigrants to Canada."